Hindi makes regular use of both a subject pronoun (I, you, he she, it, etc.) and verbal complement, होना honā “to be”1. The following chart illustrates them together (there should be agreement in their usage, of course):
|1 Person||मौं maĩ||हूँ hū̃||हम ham||हैं haĩ|
|2 Person2||तुम tum||हो ho|
|2 Person2||तू tū||है hai||आप āp||हैं haĩ|
|3 Person (Far)3||वह vo4||है hai||वे ve||हैं haĩ|
|3 Person (Near)3||यह yeh/yehe5||है hai||ये ye||हैं haĩ|
- होना is used in a number of other idiomatic expressions, most notably possession.
- The second person singular of the complement and subject pronoun are only used in very informal settings – with children, pets, close family. When dealing with the singular, तुम हो would be used with a colleague or friend, while आप हैं is used with a stranger or superior.
- The third person has separate forms for subjects (and verbal agreement) that are near or far away.
- Note that the pronunciation, “vo” does not match the written form, which would indicate “vah”.
- Note that the pronunciation, “yeh” or “yehe” does not match the written form, which would indicate “yah”.