Hindi Postpositions

In English, we use words like “to”, “for”, “by” and “with”, all placed before the nouns they modify. Thus, they are prepositions. Hindi uses postpositions, instead of prepositions, and thus the word follows the word it modifies. Words before postpositions are formed in the oblique case.

Simple Postpositions

में mẽ in
पर par on/during
से se from, by, with
तक tak up to, until
को ko used after indirect objects
after direct objects (under certain conditions)
used in many fixed expressions

The Possessive Postposition

Possession can also be indicated with का ka, similar to the use of の no in Japanese, or ‘s in English. Unlike the Japanese possessive particle, however, the Hindi possessive postposition is declined in agreement with the thing possessed:

(a) लड़की का कमरा laṛkī kā kamrā girl-of room the girl’s room
(b) लड़कियों के कमरे laṛkiyõ ke kamre girls-of rooms the girls’ rooms
(c) लड़का की किताब laṛkā kī kitāb boy-of book the boy’s book
(d) लड़के की किताबें laṛke kī kitābẽ boys-of books the boys’ books

The structure of this expression is possessor का possessed. As noted, sentences (a) and (b), show का agreeing with masculine कमरा “room”, while (c) and (d) show का agreeing with feminine किताब “book”.

Compound Postpositions
Many postpositions in Hindi are formed from के ke or की (both forms of का) and an additional word or phrase:

के लिये ke li[y]e for
के सिवाय ke sivāy except
के साथ ke sāth with
के पास ke pās near
के बाद ke bād after
के बारे में ke bāre me about
की तरह kī tarah like
की ओर kī or toward

About George

I'm interested in theology, languages, translation and various sorts of fermentation.
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1 Response to Hindi Postpositions

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