Nouns in Hindi

Hindi Nouns vary:

  • by Gender: masculine, feminine 1
  • by Number: singular, plural 1
  • by Case: nominative, oblique, vocative

Nouns are either masculine or feminine, and “gender” is not equivalent to physical gender (much like every other gendered language that I have seen). Number and case of course vary based on the object(s) and their use in the sentence or relationship to other lexical objects in the sentences structure.

Cases

  • Nominative forms  indicate the subject of a verb.
  • Oblique forms are used before postpositions.
  • Vocative forms are used for direct address.

Masculine Nouns

Masculine nouns can be broken up into three varieties, (a) those with nominative ending in , (b) those ending with any other sound, and (c) the tricky ones, Sanskrit loanwords that end in but are not declined according to pattern (a).

(a)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular -e 2
plural -e ओं
(b)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular whatever it is same as nominative singular
plural same as nominative singular nominative singular + ओं -õ
(c)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular same as nominative singular
plural same as nominative singular ओं 3

Feminine Nouns

As with masculine nouns, there are three patterns for feminine nouns, but they are not the same: The patterns are described by their nominative endings: (d) those with nominative endings in /ि -i or / , (e) those ending in / -yā, and (f) all others.

(d)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular -i or same as nominative singular
plural इयँ -iyā̃ इयों -iyõ
(e)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular या -yā same as nominative singular
plural याँ -yā̃ यो y
(f)
Number Nominative Oblique
singular whatever it is same as nominative singular
plural एँ -ẽ ओं

Additional Notes

  1. If there are options missing here, please let me know. I am in the process of adding things, and this post may be edited in the future as I have more information. In other words, I won’t guarantee the options provided are an exhaustive list.
  2. Proper nouns and some relationship terms do not change in the oblique, instead keeping the singular nominative form. Note that the singular masculine in is the only singular that changes in the oblique.
  3. Ok, in all honesty, this is an educated guess… Some of the stuff I have read says that all plural oblique nouns end in , while elsewhere I have seen that Sanskrit loanwords never change in the oblique. So I’m not sure which it is. Any help here appreciated!
Advertisements

About George

I'm interested in theology, languages, translation and various sorts of fermentation.
This entry was posted in Hindi. Bookmark the permalink.

One Response to Nouns in Hindi

  1. Jennifer Davos says:

    You are right. Sanskrit loanwords do not change into the oblique form. Hence, raajaa, maataa, pitaa, etc. remain unchanged (raajaa ko, maataa ko, pitaa ko, etc).

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s