Today I studied in Lesson 17 of Essential French (EF). this lesson gives a few more examples of reflexive verbs (les verbes pronominaux) in action. It also introduces the idea of demonstrative pronouns used with relative pronouns and the preposition de. The immediate past (le passé récent) which we saw in Alpha Teach Yourself French in 24 Hours (ATYF), a corollary to the near future (le futur proche), is introduced.
After that, “opposites” are looked at, both in verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns. I’ll detail some of those opposites, just for fun. And so we begin!
Les Verbes Pronominaux
Here are some more examples of “pronominal” verbs not yet seen:
- s’amuser “to have fun”, “to have a good time”
- s’ennuyer “to get bored”
- se lever “to get up”, “to stand up”. Often used of rising from bed in the morning.
- se coucher “to go to bed”
- se reposer “to rest”, what you’d rather be doing than travailler!
- se laver “to wash oneself”
- se peigner “to comb ones’ own hair”
- se raser “to shave oneself”
- se maquiller “to put makeup on oneself”
- s’habiller “to get dressed”, “to dress up”
- s’habituer “to get used to”, “become habituated…”
Les Pronoms Démonstratifs
We’ve seen these before, but EF only presented them connected to the pointers -là and -ci. You know, celui, ceux, celle and celles. What this lesson is really demonstrating, however, is their use with the relative pronouns qui and que and the preposition de (all fairly common):
- Voyez-vous les hommes? Mon frère, il est celui qui lit. “You see those two men? My brother is the one who is reading.”
- Je vuex lire des livres. Alors, je vais acheter ceux que tu vends. “I want to read some books. So I will buy the ones that you are selling.”
- Es-tu dans ta chambre, ou celle de ton frère? “Are you in your room, or your brother’s?”
Le Passé Récent – The Immediate Past
As noted above, we saw the expression venir de + infinitive when we discussed the imperfect in ATYF. At that time, the topic was more the form of venir used in the past, not the construct itself. Venir de followed by an infinitive is used when one wants to say somthing like “I just finished doing…” Sort of an opposite to the “near future”, (aller + infinitive) “I am going to do…” Note that with reflexive verbs in the infinitive position, the reflexive pronoun still must agree with the subject of venir.
A number of opposites are pointed out. Like these:
- un peu “a little” v. beaucoup “a lot”, “many”
- avoir raison “to be right” v. avoir tort “to be wrong”
- moi aussi “me also” v. moi non plus “me neither”
- tard “late” v. tôt “early”
- jeune(s) “young” v. vieux (vieil, vieille, vieilles) “old”
- s’habiller “to get dressed” v. se déshabiller “to get undressed”
- trop “too much” v. pas assez “not enough”
And that brings us to the end. The lesson adds some vocabulary from the conversation and some exercises testing reading comprehension. But for this post, that’s it.