The Personal Pronoun and Būt

Here are the forms of the Latvian personal pronoun, and the matching forms of the complement būt, “to be”:

Person and Number Personal Pronoun Complement
1ps es esmu
2ps tu esi
3ps viņš (masculine, “he”) or viņa (feminine, “she”) ir
1pp mēs esam
2pp jūs esat
3pp viņi (masculine, “they”) or viņas (feminine, “they”) ir

Some notes:

  1. Jūs forms are used either in the plural, or formally in place of tu forms in the singular. Tu should only be used when one is very familiar with another person.

  2. Like other verbs, to negate, one must add the verbal prefix ne- to the verb. The complement provides the singular exception, since the third person (singular and plural) form is nav, rather than neir.

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